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不管是在报告中还是其他写作中,都会使用到story telling,这可以用来筹款或者传播。 Emma Coats 是皮克斯的前故事艺术家(Story Artist) ,她给出了皮克斯编故事时的22条规则(可能是copy自22条军规的说法):

  1. You admire a character for trying more than for their successes. 比起角色的成功,更敬重故事中的角色。
  2. You gotta keep in mind what’s interesting to you as an audience, not what’s fun to do as a writer. They can be very different. 以观众的角度时刻保持警惕:这个故事有趣的地方是什么,而不是作为写作者而言“这个故事有什么有意思的地方”
  3. Trying for theme is important, but you won’t see what the story is actually about til you’re at the end of it. Now rewrite.  主题的尝试非常重要,但到最后你根本不知道这个故事是关于什么的:再写一遍……
  4. Once upon a time there was ___. Every day, ___. One day ___. Because of that, ___. Because of that, ___. Until finally ___. 故事这样说:很久以前有_____,每天,______;有一天________,因为______,因为_____,最终________
  5. Simplify. Focus. Combine characters. Hop over detours. You’ll feel like you’re losing valuable stuff but it sets you free. 聚焦,整合角色,不绕圈子。
  6. What is your character good at, comfortable with? Throw the polar opposite at them. Challenge them. How do they deal? 你的角色擅于什么,对什么感到舒服? 让其处于相反的境地,挑战他们,他们是怎么处理的?
  7. Come up with your ending before you figure out your middle. Seriously. Endings are hard, get yours working up front. 在你想出故事的一半的时候就想好结尾(这个有点难吧)
  8. Finish your story, let go even if it’s not perfect. In an ideal world you have both, but move on. Do better next time. 结束故事之后就放手吧,即使不完美。
  9. When you’re stuck, make a list of what WOULDN’T happen next. Lots of times the material to get you unstuck will show up. 当你写的时候梗住了,那就列一张“接下来不会发生什么”的表单。很多时候,让你走出来的素材总会出现的。
  10. Pull apart the stories you like. What you like in them is a part of you; you’ve got to recognize it before you can use it.  分拆故事
  11. Putting it on paper lets you start fixing it. If it stays in your head, a perfect idea, you’ll never share it with anyone.  把想法写下来并完善它。
  12. Discount the 1st thing that comes to mind. And the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th – get the obvious out of the way. Surprise yourself.
  13. Give your characters opinions. Passive(主动)/malleable(顺从) might seem likable to you as you write, but it’s poison to the audience.
  14. Why must you tell THIS story? What’s the belief burning within you that your story feeds off of? That’s the heart of it.
  15. If you were your character, in this situation, how would you feel? Honesty lends credibility (可信性) to unbelievable situations.
  16. What are the stakes? Give us reason to root for the character. What happens if they don’t succeed? Stack the odds against.
  17. No work is ever wasted. If it’s not working, let go and move on – it’ll come back around to be useful later.
  18. You have to know yourself: the difference between doing your best & fussing. Story is testing(考验), not refining(提炼、改进).
  19. Coincidences to get characters into trouble are great; coincidences to get them out of it are cheating .使用巧合让角色陷入困境很好的,但是使用巧合让角色脱离困境则是作弊/欺骗。
  20. Exercise: take the building blocks of a movie you dislike. How d’you rearrange them into what you DO like? 练习:找一部你不喜欢的电影,怎样重新安排角色/故事才会让你喜欢?
  21. You gotta identify with your situation/characters, can’t just write ‘cool’. What would make YOU act that way?
  22. What’s the essence of your story? Most economical telling of it? If you know that, you can build out from there. 你的故事精髓是什么?
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