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读网29:新闻的条件(Conditions for News)

在前网易新闻总编张锐的早期文章中看到他关于新闻的讨论,提及新闻的价值(News values),在英文维基百科中有conditions for news (新闻的条件,意译为:新闻何以成为新闻),这几条很值得一看,简译如下:

Frequency: Events that occur suddenly and fit well with the news organization’s schedule are more likely to be reported than those that occur gradually or at inconvenient times of day or night. Long-term trends are not likely to receive much coverage.

1.频率。如果事件是突发的而且恰好与新闻机构的日程掐得很准,这个事件与其他逐渐发生或者在不巧的时节上发生的事件相比则更可能会被广泛地报道。而那些趋势较长的事件似乎很难获得广泛的报道。

Negativity: Bad news is more newsworthy than good news.

2.负面性。坏消息比好消息更有新闻价值。

Unexpectedness: If an event is out of the ordinary it will have a greater effect than something that is an everyday occurrence.

3.不可预期性。如果事件超出常规,则会引起广泛的影响。这当然比那些日常所发生的事情更有影响力。

Unambiguity: Events whose implications are clear make for better copy than those that are open to more than one interpretation, or where any understanding of the implications depends on first understanding the complex background in which the events take place.

4.没有歧义性的。那些含意明晰/明确的事件要比那些具有一种以上解释的事件更容易传播开来。

Personalization: Events that can be portrayed as the actions of individuals will be more attractive than one in which there is no such “human interest.”

5.个性化。如果一件事被描写成是个人的行动结果的话,将会比那些没有”人情味”的故事更吸引人。

Meaningfulness: This relates to the sense of identification the audience has with the topic. “Cultural proximity” is a factor here — stories concerned with people who speak the same language, look the same, and share the preoccupations as the audience receive more coverage than those concerned with people who speak different languages, look different and have different preoccupations.

6.意义性。这一点则跟受众对新闻话题的认同感相关。在这里,”文化相近性”是一个因素,人们关注那些与自己说同一种语言、看起来一样、有相同利益诉求的人,与那些和自己说不同语言、看起来不一样、没有共同的利害诉求的人相比,前者会得到更多被报道的机会。

Reference to elite nations: Stories concerned with global powers receive more attention than those concerned with less influential nations.

7.与精英国家的相关性。那些关于具有全球影响力国家的新闻,比影响力较弱的国家的新闻更受关注。

Reference to elite persons: Stories concerned with the rich, powerful, famous and infamous get more coverage.

8.与精英人士的相关性。那些富裕的、有权力的、出名的和声名狼藉的人会获得更多关注度。

Conflict: Opposition of people or forces resulting in a dramatic effect. Stories with conflict are often quite newsworthy.

9.冲突。对立的人或对立的双方势力引起的戏剧性影响,关于这方面的冲突的报道通常都有新闻价值。

Consonance: Stories that fit with the media’s expectations receive more coverage than those that defy them (and for which they are thus unprepared). Note this appears to conflict with unexpectedness above. However, consonance really refers to the media’s readiness to report an item.

10.一致性。那些与媒体的预期相符的事件比那些与其预期背离的事件(或者媒体是媒体对事件没有准备的)获得更多的报道机会。这似乎和上面一条的不可预期性有冲突,但是,这里所谓的一致性其实是跟媒体是否在事件报道上做到时刻准备着

Continuity: A story that is already in the news gathers a kind of inertia. This is partly because the media organizations are already in place to report the story, and partly because previous reportage may have made the story more accessible to the public (making it less ambiguous).

11.连续性。被报道过的事件会聚集一种惯性。一部分是因为媒体已现场报道过,另一部分是因为之前的报道已经让公众对事件看得更加清晰(让其没那么模糊不清)

Composition: Stories must compete with one another for space in the media. For instance, editors may seek to provide a balance of different types of coverage, so that if there is an excess of foreign news for instance, the least important foreign story may have to make way for an item concerned with the domestic news. In this way the prominence given to a story depends not only on its own news values but also on those of competing stories. (Galtung and Ruge, 1965) [注1]

12.构成。新闻报道必须彼此对称(或平衡)。比如,编辑会在不同类型的报道上寻求平衡,因而如果已经有一个重磅的国外新闻,那么较不重要的国外新闻就会给国内新闻让道。在这一点上看,一个新闻的突出之处不仅仅在于其本身的新闻价值,同样也取决于其相同版面下的另一新闻的构成。

Competition: Commercial or professional competition between media may lead journalists to endorse the news value given to a story by a rival.

13.竞争。商业或者专业媒体的竞争会使得记者在新闻价值上彼此认同。

Co-optation: A story that is only marginally newsworthy in its own right may be covered if it is related to a major running story.

14.相连。如果一个较少新闻价值的新闻与一个较大/较严重的事情相连,那它可能会被报道。

Prefabrication: A story that is marginal in news terms but written and available may be selected ahead of a much more newsworthy story that must be researched and written from the ground up.

15.预制性。一个较少新闻价值但已经写好的报道可能会那些需要调研和从头开始写的报道被选中并播出。

Predictability: An event is more likely to be covered if it has been pre-scheduled. (Bell, 1991) [注2]

16.可预见性。当然,如果一件事是可以被预见,它很大可能会被报道。

Time constraints: Traditional news media such as radio, television and daily newspapers have strict deadlines and a short production cycle, which selects for items that can be researched and covered quickly.

17.时间限制。诸如电台、电视和日报等传统媒体有严格的时间限制和短制作周期,它们都会选择那些可以快速地被调研好和采访好的事件加以报道。

Logistics: Although eased by the availability of global communications even from remote regions, the ability to deploy and control production and reporting staff, and functionality of technical resources can determine whether a story is covered. (Schlesinger, 1987) [注3]

18.逻辑性。即使全球的通讯能抵达非常边远的地区,但是部署和调配制作人员、记者的能力,以及技术资源的效能决定了一个事件是否会被报道。

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[注1]:Galtung, J. & Ruge, M. Holmboe (1965): The Structure of Foreign News. The Presentation of the Congo, Cuba and Cyprus Crises in Four Norwegian Newspapers, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 2, pp. 64-91.

[注2]:Bell A. (1991) The Language of News Media. Oxford: Blackwell.

[注3]:Schlesinger P. (1987) Putting ‘Reality’ Together, 2nd edition London: Methuen.

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